Four Type Of Drug Injection (Medicine)

Injection in medical is a way that is done to put a number of fluids into the body through syringes of various sizes.

There are 4 types injections that are often done in the health world are:
  • intravenous injection
  • Intramuscular Injection
  • Intradermal Injection
  • Subcutaneous Injection

Four types the injection above has different functions, places and procedures, the following is the explanation  

Intravenous Injection


Intravenous injection is a method used to enter a number of fluids into the circulatory system through a vein by using a syringe .
Intravenous injection is usually carried out in the vein vein which is present in the area of the arm (basilica vein and venous sefalica), in the leg (safena vein), in the neck (jungularis vein), and in the head (frontal vein or temporal vein).

Intravenous injection has advantages including:
  • Can be used for unconscious patients
  • The drug can work quickly
  • The drug can be absorbed perfectly
  • Does not irritate the stomach.

Intravenous Injection has disadvantages, among others
  • Embolism can occur if there is air that exceeds the maximum level in the syringe
  • Infection can occur if the needle is not sterile
  • Hematoma can occur  
  • Blood vessels break
  • Requires special expertise in doing it

How to Intravenous Injection 
  • Washing hands
  • Prepare medicines that have been put into syringes or syringes
  • Determine which area / blood vessel to be injected
  • Attach a rubber dam or tourniquet to the top of the vein to be injected.
  • Put on gloves
  • Do cleaning the area to be injected using cotton alcohol by turning it from the inside out and throwing it away.
  • Take new cotton alcohol and hold it with your fingers using non-dominant hands
  • Take the needle open the syringe  
  • Hold the syringe at an angle of 30 ° and stick to the vein that is the object.
  • Lower the position of the needle parallel to the skin and continue stabbing into the vein
  • Aspiration by means of the non-dominant hand holding the barrel spuit and the dominant hand pulling the plunger.
  • Observe the syringe if there is blood sucked into the syringe and remove the tourniquet and slowly insert the medicine.
  • Pull the needle at the same angle when inserting the needle, which is 30 ° while applying pressure to the alcohol in the injection area.
  • Close the injection area using a sterile gauze given antiseptic
  • Dispose of syringes and unused equipment.
  • Injection IV is complete.

Subcutaneous Injection


Subcutaneous injection is a method used to include a number of fat coating fluids that are right under the skin using syringes or syringes. Because drug release to the body system takes place more slowly and gradually by subcutaneous injection than by intravenous injection, subcutaneous injection is often used to inject various vaccines and drugs (for example, in cases of type I diabetes, insulin is often injected with this type of injection). The prescription for drugs given through subcutaneous injection is usually accompanied by detailed instructions on the correct way to administer the injection.

Subcutaneous injection is usually performed in 1/3 of the upper upper arm, anterior thigh, abdominal region: area of the scapula in the upper back, upper ventrogluteal area, and upper dorsogluteal

How to Subcutaneous Injection 
  • washing hands
  • Prepare the medicine, put the medicine from the vial or ampoule in the right way
  • Select the correct injection area (free of edema, mass, tenderness, scarring, redness / inflammation, itching)
  • Wear gloves
  • Clean the injection site by rubbing the alcohol cotton from the center out in a circle about 5 cm, using a hand that is not for injecting
  • Prepare a syringe, remove the cover hood perpendicularly while waiting for the antiseptic to dry and remove air from the syringe
  • Hold the syringe with one of the dominant hands between your thumb and forefinger with your palm facing sideways, up or down.
  • Use non-dominant hands to lift / stretch the skin
  • Carefully and firmly puncture / needle injection with 45 '  
  • Achieve the lower end of the barrel syringe with the non-dominant hand and move the dominant hand to the plunger
  • Do aspiration by pulling the plunger, if there is blood in the syringe then immediately remove the syringe to be removed and replaced with a new syringe and medicine. if there is no blood, slowly inject the drug into the tissue
  • Pull the syringe / needle quickly while placing an alcohol cotton on the injection site and wipe it at the injection area. if the stabbing site is bleeding,  
  • press the stabbing place with a sterile dry gauze until the bleeding stops.  
  • Dispose of syringes and unused equipment.
  • Injection Subcutaneous is complete

Intramuscular Injection


Intramuscular injection is a method used to insert drugs or a number of fluids directly into the muscle (muscular) using a syringe or syringe. Injection   this way is done on the large muscular body parts, so that there is no possibility to pierce the nerves, for example on the buttocks and thighs   the upper or upper arm. This type of injection allows the drug to be released periodically in the form of a drug depot.

Intramuscular injection  is usually done In the area of the thigh (vastus lateralis)   In the dorsogluteal region and in the deltoid region (upper arm).

How to intramuscular injection
  • washing hands
  • Take the medicine and put it in the syringe according to the dose. After that, put it in the injection tub.
  • Check the place to be injected (note the injection location)
  • Disinfect with cotton alcohol at the place to be injected.
  • Stab it with the position of the needle perpendicular (90 °)
  • After the needle goes into the syringe inspiration, if there is no blood interested in the syringe then press the syringe until the drug enters the soil until it runs out.
  • After finishing pulling the syringe and pressing while injecting it with cotton alcohol, then the syringe that has been used put it bent.
  • Dispose of syringes and unused equipment
  • Intramuscular injection is complete.

Intradermal injection


Intradermal injection is a way to insert a drug or liquid into the dermal layer of the skin just below the epidermis using syringe. Usually only a small amount of solution is used (e.g 0.1 ml). This method of administration is often used for allergy testing and tuberculosis screening.

Intradermal injection is usually done in the area   forearm, upper chest and back under the scapula. The left arm is generally used for tuberculosis screening and the right arm is used for all other examinations. Location: injected into the skin with not much blood flow so that the drug can be absorbed slowly.

How to intradermal injection  
  • Washing hands
  • Prepare medicines that have been put into syringes or syringes
  • Determine which area to inject
  • Put gloves
  • Do cleaning the area to be injected using cotton alcohol by turning it from the inside out and throwing it away.
  • Take new cotton alcohol and hold it with your fingers using non-dominant hands
  • Take the syringe open the needle  
  • Hold a syringe or syringe at an angle of 15 ° and pinch the area   which is the object.
  • Lower the position of the needle parallel to the skin and continue stabbing down the epidermal skin until the skin appears to form spheres as if bitten by mosquitoes.
  • Pull the needle at the same angle when inserting the needle which is 15 ° while applying pressure with the alcohol cotton on the injection area if indicated.
  • Give a circle using the pen in the injected area and do not forget to write the injection hour for allergy testing around the circle.
  • Observe ± 15 minutes if the spherical area is red or the patient feels itching which means the patient has an allergy to the drug. Otherwise, the patient is not allergic.
  • Dispose of syringes and unused equipment.
  • Intradermal Injection  is complete.
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